The Disposable Syringe Jet Injector (DSJI) Project is supporting clinical research on the delivery of vaccines with jet injectors. Our current research includes the work described below.
Inactivated polio vaccine
Inactivated polio vaccine has a long history of safety and effectiveness; furthermore, it will be critical following the eradication of polio worldwide once oral polio vaccine is no longer used. Intradermal delivery at reduced doses could stretch vaccine supplies and reduce costs to programs, improving access to this important vaccine within developing countries. Jet injectors, which offer a simple approach to intradermal injection, could facilitate uptake of this vaccination strategy. More information about a PATH-supported study of the vaccine is available in a New England Journal of Medicine article on the PubMed website.
Seasonal influenza vaccine is often omitted from national immunization programs. This study examined the safety and effectiveness of flu vaccine when given to toddlers in the Dominican Republic. This study tested whether a fractional dose given intradermally by jet injector works as well as a full dose given with a standard delivery method. The study team is currently completing final data analysis; more information about the study is available on the U.S. National Institutes of Health's ClinicalTrials.gov website.
Intradermal delivery landscape
In conjunction with Project Optimize, the DSJI project supported a literature review to evaluate the landscape of intradermal vaccine research. The resulting report provides an overview of clinical research on intradermal vaccination and intradermal delivery devices and reviews the vaccines which are most appropriate for future research on intradermal delivery for use in developing-country immunization programs.
More recently, PATH and Working in Tandem collaborated on a bulletin about the potential benefits and current challenges of intradermal delivery of vaccines. The bulletin, posted by the World Health Organization, examined intradermal delivery of vaccines in terms of novel delivery devices, the suitability of vaccines type, costs—both cost savings associated with reduced doses and cost modeling associated with changes to routine vaccinations of some vaccines to intradermal delivery—as well as manufacturing challenges and regulatory issues. bulletin on the WHO website (xx KB PDF).
PATH is conducting a study to examine the safety and effectiveness of this childhood vaccine when delivered by jet injector. More information about this study is available from the trial’s registration on the World Health Organization website.
The DSJI project plans to conduct several clinical studies using common childhood vaccines to demonstrate the technology’s performance as a replacement for traditional needles and syringes. Possible future research includes the vaccines below.
Yellow fever vaccine
Given in endemic areas of South America and Africa, as well as to travelers from other countries, there are periodic shortages of this vaccine. Reduced-dose intradermal delivery by jet injector could mitigate shortages and expand access to yellow fever vaccine.
This combination vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B. Vaccines for these diseases are used in most immunization programs around the world. PATH’s planned research will compare delivery of this vaccine to delivery with a needle and syringe. More information is available from PATH's Vaccine Resource Library.
This vaccine is used to protect children against tuberculosis. It is delivered intradermally, but there are challenges with the standard intradermal injection method. DSJIs may provide a safer and more reliable means of administering this vaccine. More information is available from the World Health Organization website.
Rabies can be prevented by vaccination after a bite by a potentially rabid animal, but in some countries, many people who need it do not receive the vaccine. Intradermal delivery of reduced doses of rabies vaccine has been approved by the WHO. Use of intradermal delivery devices could increase the availability of this life-saving vaccine. More information is available from the World Health Organization website.
- More information on the history of jet injection and current research is available from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
- More information about injection safety in the developing world is available from PATH's Vaccine Resource Library.